Grains

Firstly, the grains motion bubble chart. In this chart it shows the yield production of cotton, maize, rice, sugarcane and wheat according to years span from 1947-48 to 2019-2020.

1-WHEAT:

The scientific name of wheat is Triticum. Wheat is one of the aged and utmost important grain crops. The utmost important of the thousands of known breeds is the common wheat, which is used to make different bread, durum wheat, including making pasta such as macaroni and bakery such as cakes, crackers, cookies, pastries. Some of the things make by using wheat starch, malt, dextrose, gluten, alcohol and other products are used by the industry. A famous drink made by wheat which is common in eastern Europe and middle East it is fermented drink called boza.

The largest part of wheat flour is used for making bread. Wheat grown in dry climates is usually hard, with a protein content of 11-15% and strong gluten (elastic protein). Makes hard dough which is perfect for making bread. Wheat in moist areas is soft, with a protein content of about 8-10% and weak gluten. The soft wheat variety makes flours suitable for cakes, crackers, cookies and pastries and homemade flour. Dorm wheat semolina (from endosperm) is used to make pasta, or elemental paste.

The nutritional composition of wheat grains varies somewhat with climate and soil differences. On average, kernels contain 12% water, 70% carbohydrates, 12% protein, 2% fat, 1.8% minerals, and 2.2% crude fiber. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin A are present in small amounts, but the grinding process removes most of these nutrients from bran and germs.

Most of the wheat used for food needs processing. The grains are cleaned and then mixed with water and conditioned so that the grains break properly. In milling, the grain is cracked and then passed through a series of rollers. As the smaller particles are removed, the coarse particles reach other rollers for further reduction. About 72% of the mixed grains are exported as white flour. Flour made from whole grains is called graham flour and it gets dirty due to long term storage as well as retention of germ oil content. White flour, which does not contain germs, lasts longer. Less and more wheat and various milling by-products are used for cattle feed.

2-RICE:

The scientific name of rice (Oryza sativa), edible starchy grains and grass plant (Family Poaceae) from which it is produced. Almost half of the world’s population, including almost all of East and Southeast Asia, relies entirely on rice as its staple food. Humans consume 95% of the world’s rice crop. Rice is boiled and cooked, or it can be cooked by grinding it in flour. It is eaten alone and in a large variety of Asian, Middle Eastern and many other dishes such as soups, side dishes, and main dishes. Other products that use rice include breakfast cereals, noodles, and alcoholic beverages.

Milling by-products, including bran and rice polish (fine powder bran and starch resulting from polishing), are sometimes used as animal feed. Bran is used to make oil for both food and industrial use. Broken rice is used in cooking, distilling and making starch and rice flour. Hills are used in the manufacture of fuels, packing materials, industrial grinding, fertilizer manufacturing, and industrial chemicals called furfural. Straw is used for fodder, cattle bedding, roof tiles, mats, garments, packing material and brooms.

The nutritional composition of rice grains varies somewhat with climate and soil differences. A 100 grams of rice contains 130 calories, amount 28.7g and % daily value(DV) 10% carbohydrates, , amount 2.36g and % daily value(DV) 5% protein, amount 0.19g and % daily value(DV) 0% fat.

3-SUGARCANE:

The scientific name of sugarcane is Saccharum officinarum, a perennial herb of the Poaceae family, is grown mainly for sugar which is to be processed. Most of the world’s sugarcane is grown in subtropical and tropical regions. The plant is also grown for biofuel production, especially in Brazil, as the sticks can be used directly to make ethyl alcohol (ethanol). Sugarcane processing sugar can be used to make by-products such as straw and bagasse (sugarcane fiber), cellulosic ethanol, a second-generation biofuel. Other sugarcane products include jaggery, rum, and cachaça (a Brazilian alcohol), and the plant itself can be used as bark and fodder for cattle. This article treats sugarcane cultivation.

The sugarcane plant produces many stalks that are 3 to 7 meters (10 to 24 feet) tall and have long sword-shaped leaves. The stalk consists of several parts and each joint has a bud. When the stick matures, a rising point at the top of the stalk becomes a thin arrow with a bunch of small flowers.

Sugarcane juice is rich in nutrients including: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, magnesium, zinc, thiamine, riboflavin and many amino acids. A glass of sugarcane juice (240 ml) comes with 180 calories, 30 grams of sugar and is also high in dietary fiber.

4-COTTON:

Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is produced in large quantities and economically, which makes cotton products relatively cheap. Fibers can be made into a variety of fabrics, from lightweight wool and lace to heavy cell cloths and thick piles of velvet, suitable for wear apparel, home furnishings and industrial use.

Cotton fabrics are extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. Cotton accepts many colors, is generally washable, and can be ironed at relatively high temperatures. It is comfortable to wear as it absorbs and releases moisture quickly.

When heat is needed, it can be blinked, a process that provides the bottom surface of the fabric. Various finishing processes have been developed to make cotton resistant to stains, water and mildew. Increasing the resistance to wrinkles, thus reducing or eliminating the need for ironing; And reducing shrinkage in laundering by more than 1%. Non-woven cotton, which is made by combining or joining fibers, is useful for making disposable products for towels, polishing cloths, tea bags, table cloths, bandages, and hospital and other medical uses. Can be used for disposable uniforms and sheets.

5-MAIZE:

Maize also called corn (North American and Australian English), is a grain that has been cultivated by the natives in southern Mexico for about 10,000 years. Maize, (Zea mays), also called Indian maize or maize, is a cereal plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible grain. The rearing crop originated in the United States and is one of the most widely distributed food crops in the world. Corn is used as animal feed, human feed, biofuel and as a raw material in industry.

Commercial classifications based primarily on kernel structure include dent corn, flint corn (kernels with a range of white to red), flour corn, sweet corn, and popcorn. Dent corn (outer hard shell), grown primarily as animal feed and for food preparation, is characterized by a depression in the kernel crown due to the uneven drying of the hard and soft starch that make up the kernel. Flour corn, which is mostly composed of soft starch, contains soft, coarse, easily grinding grains and is an important source of corn flour. Sweet corn (kernels range color from white or yellow), usually sold as a fresh, frozen, or canned vegetable, has a translucent seed. Plant sugars do not convert to starch like other types. Popcorn, an extreme type of floury corn characterized by small hard grains, is devoid of soft starch, and heating increases the moisture in the cells, causing the kernels to rupture. Improvements in maize have resulted from hybridization, based on crossbreeding of higher breeds.

A typical corn kernel contains nutrients (70-75%), protein (8-10%) and oil (4-5%). The difference in the relative concentration of these nutrients is due to the structure of the adult kernel, which contains 80% endosperm and 10% germs on a dry basis